The seminar will be held in a mixed mode
1) Speaker: M.V. Barkov (INASAN)
Title: “3D dynamics and morphology of bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae and more”
Abstract: Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) show a variety of morphological shapes. We attribute this diversity to the geometrical factors: relative orientations of the pulsar rotation axis, proper velocity, and the line of sight (magnetic inclination angle may also have certain influence on the morphology). We identify three basic types of bow-shock nebulae: (i) a rifle bullet (pulsar spin axis and proper velocity are aligned), (ii) a ‘Frisbee’ (pulsar spin axis and proper velocity are orthogonal with the spin axis lying in the plane of the sky), and (iii) a ‘Cart wheel’ (such as frisbee but the spin axis is perpendicular to the plane of the sky). Using results of the 3D magnetohydrodynamics simulations, as well as analytical calculations, we reproduce the key morphological features of the bow-shock PWNe, as well as variations seen across different systems. Magnetic stresses within the shocked pulsar wind affect the overall structure strongly, producing ‘whiskers’, ‘tails’, ‘filled-in’, and ‘mushroom’ shapes, as well as non-symmetric morphologies. On the other hand, the interstellar medium inhomogeneities and the anisotropy of the energy flux in the pulsar wind have only a mild impact of the PWN morphology. In a few cases, when we clearly identify specific morphological structures, our results do not favour alignment of the pulsar spin axis and proper velocity. Our calculations of the underlying emission processes explain the low-synchrotron X-ray efficiency (in terms of the spin-down luminosity) and imply an energetically subdominant contribution of the inverse Compton process.