Докладчик: Rob R. Landis, NEO Program Executive (NASA Headquarters)
Название доклада: «International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN)and NASA’s NEO observations Program»
Краткое содержание доклада:
The intent of the International Asteroid Warning Network (IAWN) is to establish a worldwide effort to detect, track, and physically characterize near-Earth objects (NEOs) to determine those that are potential impact threats to Earth. This network is comprised of a partnership of scientific institutions, observatories, and other interested parties performing observations, orbit computation, modeling, and other scientific research related to the impact potential and effects of asteroids. Initially, the concept was developed within the United Nations (UN) Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS). IAWN endeavors to foster a shared understanding of the NEO hazard and optimize the scientific return on these small celestial bodies. Part of IAWN is NASA’s NEO Observations Program. Since being established in 1998, NEO observations program has discovered ~98% of all new NEO discoveries. Since the program’s inception, NASA has funded several universities and space institutes to upgrade and operate existing 1-meter class telescopes to conduct the search for NEOs. Of critical importance to the effort is the Minor Planet Center (MPC) of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, where automated systems process [in near real-time] observations produced by the search teams. The NEO Program Office at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) determines precise orbits for the objects. Both JPL and the MPC utilize processes and procedures for NEO orbit determination and prediction that are sanctioned and monitored by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) and produce data catalogues on small bodies in the Solar System that are utilized world-wide by the astronomical community. Most recently, the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) was reactivated with an emphasis on detecting NEOs. WISE is in Sun-synchronous, near-polar inclination (97.5°) orbit around the Earth. The NEOWISE project continues to utilize WISE in ‘warm mode’ (i.e., at 3.4 and 4.6 microns) and in conjunction with ground-based follow-up, this unique dataset has set limits on population statistics, orbital parameters, approximate sizes, and initial compositional knowledge of the asteroid population.